Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine

ISSN: 2300-9705     eISSN: 2353-2807    OAI    DOI: 10.18276/cej.2018.1-08
CC BY-SA   Open Access   DOAJ  DOAJ

Lista wydań / Vol. 21, No. 1/2018
Perception of Success among People Practising Martial Arts and Combat Sports

Autorzy: Wojciech J. Cynarski
Department of Physical Education, University of Rzeszów, Rzeszow, Poland

Przemyslaw Pawelec
International Martial Arts and Combat Sports Scientific Society, Rzeszow, Poland

Jong-Hoon Yu
Department of Health & Human Performance, Glenville State College, Glenville, United States of America

Michal Vit
Faculty of Sport Studies, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic

Jan Słopecki
European Jujutsu & Kobudo Committee, Warsaw, Poland

Krzysztof Kubala
Department of Physical Education, University of Rzeszów, Rzeszow, Poland
Słowa kluczowe: ego orientation task orientation martial arts combat sports Perceptions of Success in Sport Questionnaire
Rok wydania:2018
Liczba stron:9 (67-75)
Cited-by (Crossref) ?:


A scientific framework for this study is the Humanistic Theory of Martial Arts, and the psychology of sport using the concepts of goal, task and success. The problem and aim of this study was an explanation of “perception of success” in groups of adults practising martial arts. Is perception of success influenced by the respondents' social background or the type of martial art practised? Would there be any differences in results depending on their country of origin and residence, and if so, what results? The research was done within the framework of the IMACSSS.1A/2011: “Social determinants of participation in martial arts schools and clubs”. The tool was Perception of Success Questionnaire, which was used to survey a number of respondents from the United States, the Czech Republic and Poland, who were selected randomly and participated voluntarily. The statements and calculations have been ranked by more- or - less contact forms of martial arts. The results obtained in this study indicate a poor relationship between perception of success and the type of fighting style practised and a measurable relationship between the perception of success and social origin. There is a weak relationship in perception of success by respondents from American or European cultures.
Pobierz plik

Plik artykułu


1.Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 3 (84), 261–271. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0663.84.3.261.
2.Back, A., Kim, D. (1979). Towards a Western philosophy of the Eastern martial arts. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 6, 19–28. DOI: 10.1080/00948705.1979.10654147.
3.Beck, O., Monastyrska, E., Wojciechowska, M., Szrajda, J. (2013). Achievement goals in exercise and sport from the public health perspective. Hygeia Public Health, 4 (48), 505–508.
4.Boyd, M., Weinmann, C., Yin, Z. (2002). The relationship of physical self-perceptions and goal orientations to intrinsic motivation for exercise. Journal of Sport Behavior, 1 (25), 1–18.
5.Cynarski, W.J. (2012). Martial Arts Phenomenon – Research and Multidisciplinary Interpretation. Rzeszow: Rzeszow University Press.
6.Cynarski, W.J. (2013). General reflections about the philosophy of martial arts. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 3 (13), 1–6. DOI: 10.14589/ido.13.3.1.
7.Cynarski, W.J., Lee-Barron, J. (2014). Philosophies of martial arts and their pedagogical consequences. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 1 (14), 11 –19. DOI: 10.14589/ido.14.1.2.
8.Cynarski, W.J., Sieber, L., Litwiniuk, A. (2005). Perception, understanding and adaptation of Asian martial arts in the West: a sociological analysis. Archives of Budo, 1, 13–18.
9.Dykhuizen, J.C. (2000). Culture, training, and perception of the martial arts: Aikido example. Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 3 (9), 9–31.
10.Elliot, A. (2006), The Hierarchical Model of Approach-Avoidance Motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 2 (30), 111–116. DOI: 10.1007/ s11031-006-9028-7.
11.Escartí, A., Roberts, G.C., Cervelló, E.M., Guzmán, J.F. (1999). Adolescent goal orientations and the perception of criteria of success used by significant others. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 3 (30), 309–324.
12.Gillbert, D. (2017). The American Class Structure in an Age of Growing Inequality. SAGE Publication: Thousand Oaks.
13.Gómez-López, M., Granero-Gallegos, A., Abraldes, J.A., Rodríguez-Suárez, N. (2013). Analysis of Self-Determined Motivation in Basketball Players through Goal Orientations. Collegium Antropologicum, 3 (37), 707–715.
14.Guelmami, N., Jbabli, S., Barhoumi, M., Hamrouni, S., Agrebi, B. (2014). Cross cultural validity of the Arabic version of Perception of Success Questionnaire (Children’s Version). Indian Journal of Applied Research, 1 (4), 468–471. DOI: 10.15373/2249555X/JAN2014/145.
15.Holgado Tello, F.P., Navas Martínez, L., López Núñez, M., García Calvo, T. (2010). A structural model of goal orientation in sports: personal and contextual variables. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 1 (13), 257–266.
16.Kim, D., Back, A. (2000). The Way to Go: Philosophy in Martial Arts Practice. Seoul: Nanam.
17.King, L.A., Williams, T.A. (1997). Goal orientation and performance in martial arts. Journal of Sport Behaviour, 4 (20), 397–411.
18.Moreno Murcia, J.A., Cervelló Gimeno, E., Cutre Coll, D.G. (2007). Young athletes’ motivational profiles. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2 (6), 172–179.
19.Nicholls, J.G. (1984). Conceptions of ability and achievement motivation. In: R. Ames, C. Ames (eds.), Research on motivation in education (pp. 39–73). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
20.Obodynski, K., Cynarski, W.J. (2005). Social and Philosophical Determinants of the Lifestyle of a Contemporary Student of Martial Arts. In: B. Hodan (ed.), Tĕlesná vychova, sport a rekreace v procesu současné globalizace (pp. 271–281). Olomouc: Univerzita Palackeho v Olomouci.
21.Roberts, G.C., Treasure, D.C., Balague, G. (1998). Achievement goals in sport: The development and validation of the Perception of Success Questionnaire. Journal of Sports Sciences, 4 (16), 337–347. DOI: 10.1080/02640419808559362.
22.Salinero Martín, J.J., Ruiz Tendero, G., Sánchez Bañuelos, F. (2006). Orientación y clima motivacional, motivación de logro, atribución de éxito y diversión en un deporte individual. Ciencias Aplicadas a la Actividad Física y el Deporte, 1, 5–11.
23.Szczepanski, J. (1970). Elementarne pojęcia socjologii. Warszawa: PWN.
24.Vertonghen, J., Theeboom, M. (2012). Martial arts and youth: an analysis of contextual factors. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 4 (17), 237–241. DOI: 10.1080/02673843.2012.687689.
25.Vertonghen, J., Theeboom, M., Pieter, W. (2014). Mediating factors in martial arts and combat sports: An analysis of the type of martial art, characteristics, and social background of young participants. Perceptual & Motor Skills: Exercise & Sport, 1 (118), 41 –61. DOI: 10.2466/06.30.PMS.118k14w3.
26.Warner, W.L. (1949). Social Class in America. Chicago: Science Research Associates Incorporated.
27.Witkowski, K., Cynarski, W.J., Blazejewski, W. (2013). Motivations and determinants underlying the practice of martial arts and combat sports. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 1 (13), 17–26. DOI: 10.14589/ido.13.1.3.
28.Zeng, H.Z., Cynarski, W.J. (2016). Participation Motivations of Taekwondo Athletes/ Students. Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing.
29.Zeng, H.Z., Cynarski, W.J., Xie, L. (2013). Martial Arts Anthropology, Participants’ Motivation and Behaviours. Martial Arts in Chanshu: Participants’ Motivation, Practice Times and Health Behaviours. Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing.
30.Zeng, H.Z., Xie, L., Cynarski, W.J. (2013). Young Martial Arts Athletes’ Motivation and their Health-Related Behaviours. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1 (84), A78–A79.