Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine

ISSN: 2300-9705     eISSN: 2353-2807    OAI
CC BY-SA   Open Access   DOAJ  DOAJ

Lista wydań / Vol. 7, No. 3/2014
The Effect of Wrestling Tournament on Immune and Endocrine Markers in Blood and Saliva of Male and Female Athletes

Autorzy: Elżbieta Hübner-Woźniak
The Józef Pisudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education, Warsaw, Poland

Teresa Trochimiak
The Józef Pisudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education, Warsaw, Poland
Słowa kluczowe: blood endocrine markers immune markers saliva tournament wrestlers
Rok wydania:2014
Liczba stron:9 (81-89)


The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of one-day wrestling tournament on magnitude and direction of changes in selected immunological and endocrine status indices. The participants of the study were male (n = 12) and female (n = 13) wrestlers. The earlobe blood samples and unstimulated saliva were collected at three time points: in the morning before the competition (1), immediately after the last match (2) and in the next morning (3). Total protein, IgA and cortisol concentration and α-amylase activity in saliva, as well as concentration of cortisol and interleukin-6 in serum were measured. Significantly lower ratio of sIgA/protein and significantly higher levels of salivary and serum cortisol, interleukin-6, and α-amylase activity were observed at the second time point compared with the first and the third in both groups of athletes. Regardless of the examined time point, concentrations of serum and saliva markers were similar in female and male wrestlers. However, a tendency to lower sAA activity on the next morning after the tournament compared to basal activity of this enzyme was seen in both examined groups. In general, the changes of examined markers were short-lived, except for α-amylase activity, showing that tournament-wrestling matches had no sustained negative effects on endocrine and immunological body systems.
Pobierz plik

Plik artykułu


1.Acevedo E., Kraemer R., Kamimori G., Durand R., Johnson L., Castracane V. Stress hormones, effort sense and perceptions of stress during incremental exercise: An exploratory investigation. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2007; 2: 283–288.
2.Barbas J., Fatouros J.G., Douroudos I.I., Chatzinikolaou A., Michailidis Y., Draganidis D., Jamurtas A.Z., Nikolaidis M.G., Parotsidis C., Theodorou A.A., Katrabasas I., Margonis K., Papassotiriou I., Taxildaris K. Physiological and performance adaptation
3.Bishop N.C., Gleeson M. Acute and chronic effects of exercise on markers of mucosal immunity. Front. Biosci. 2009; 14: 4444–4456.
4.Chatzinikolaou A., Draganidis D., Avloniti A., Karipidis A., Jamurtas A.Z., Skevaki C.L., Tsoukas D., Sovatzidis A., Theodorou A., Kambas A., Papassotiriou I., Taxildaris K., Fatouros I. The microcycle of inflammation and performance changes after a baske
5.Crewther B., Keogh J., Cronin J., Cook C. Possible stimuli for strength and power adaptation: acute hormonal responses. Sports Med. 2006; 36: 215–238.
6.Daly W., Seegers C.A., Dobridge J.D., Hackney A.C. Relationship between stress hormones and testosterone with prolonged endurance exercise. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2005; 93: 375–380.
7.Ehlert U., Erni K., Hebisch G., Nater U. Salivary alpha-amylase levels after yohimbine challenge in healthy men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2006; 91: 5130–5133.
8.Eskandari F., Sternberg E.M. Neural-immune interactions in health and disease. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 2002; 966: 20–27.
9.Febbraio M.A., Pedersen B.K. Muscle derived interleukin-6: mechanism and possible biological roles. FASEB J. 2002; 16: 1335–1347.
10.Febbraio M.A., Pedersen B.K. Contraction-induced myokine production and release: is skeletal muscle an endocrine organ? Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 2005; 33: 114–119.
11.Fische Pedersen B.K. Plasma levels of IL-6 and CRP are associated with physical inactivity independent of obesity. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 2007; 17: 580–587.
12.Fischer C.P. Interleukin-6 in acute exercise and training: what is the biological relevance? Exerc. Immunol. Rev. 2006; 12: 6–33.
13.Gill S.K., Teixeira A.M., Rosado L.R.F., Hankey J., Scheer V., Robson-Ansley P., Costaa R.J.S. Salivary antimicrobial protein responses during multistage ultramarathon competition conducted in hot environmental conditions. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 2013
14.Hackney A.C., Waltz E.A. Hormonal adaptation and the stress of exercise training: the role of glucocorticoids. TSS. 2013; 4 (20).
15.Hübner-Woźniak E., Lutosławska G., Sendecki W. Effect of training volume on the levels of salivary immunoglobulin a in wrestlers. Biol. Sport 1998; 15: 129–131.
16.Kanaley J.A., Weltman J.Y., Pieper K.S., Weltman A., Hartman M.L. Cortisol and growth hormone resposnses to exercise at different times of day. J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab. 2008; 86: 2881– 2889.
17.Kazeeva T.N., Shevelev A.B. IgA-specific proteins of pathogenic bacteria. Biochemistry. Moscow 2009; 74: 12–21.
18.Kivlighan K.T., Granger D.A. Salivary α-amylase response to competition: relation to gender, previous experience, and attitudes. Psychoneuroendocrinol 2006; 6: 703–771.
19.Leicht C.A., Bishop N.C., Goosey-Tolfrey V.L. Mucosal immune responses to treadmill exercise in elite wheelchair athletes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2011; 43: 1414–1421.
20.Martin S.A., Pence B.D., Woods J.A. Exercise and respiratory tract viral infections. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 2009; 37: 157–164.
21.Meckel Y., Nemet D., Bar-Sela S., Radom-Aizik S., Cooper D.M., Sagiv M., Eliakim A. Hormonal and inflammatory responses to different types of sprint interval training. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2011; 25: 2161–2169.
22.Moreira A., Bacurau R.F.P., Napimoga M.H., Arruda A.F.S., Freitas C.G., Drago G., Aoki M.S. Salivary IL-21 and IgA response to a competitive match in elite basketball players. Biol. Sport 2013; 30: 243–247.
23.Mulla ti-inflammatory protein Annexin I (Lipocortin 1) and serum cortisol in subject with normal and dysregulated adrenal function. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2005; 90: 557–562.
24.Nater U.M., Rohleder N. Salivary alpha-amylase as a non-invasive biomarker for the sympathetic nervous system: current state of research. Psychoneuroendocrinol. 2009; 34: 486–496.
25.Nielsen A.R., Mounier R., Plomgaard P., Mortensen O.H., Penkowa M., Speerschneider T., Pilegaard H., Pedersen B.K. Expression of interleukin-15 in human skeletal muscle: effect of exercise and muscle fibre type composition. J. Physiol. 2007; 584: 305–312.
26.Nivaldo R., Moura de N.R., Cury-Boaventura M.F., Santos V.C., Levada-Pires A.C., Bortolon J.R., Fiamoncini J., Pithon-Curi T.C., Curi R., Hatanaka E. Inflammatory response and neutrophil functions in players after a futsal match. J. Strength Cond. Res. 20
27.Pacque P.F.J., Booth C.K., Ball M.J,. Dwyer D.B. The effect of an ultra-endurance running race on mucosal and humoral immune function. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 2007; 47; 496–501.
28.Panagiotakos D.B., Pitsavos C., Chrysohoou C., Kavouras S., Stefanadis C. The associations between leisure-time physical activity and inflammatory and coagulation markers related to cardiovascular disease: the ATTICA Study. Prev. Med. 2005; 40: 432–437.
29.Pedersen B.K., Akerstrom T.C., Nielsen A.R., Fischer C.P. Role of myokines in exercise and metabolism. J. Appl. Physiol. 2007; 103: 1093–1098.
30.Pedersen B.K., Febbraio M. Muscle-derived interleukin-6: a possible link between skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, liver, and brain. Brain Behav. Immun. 2005; 19: 371–376.
31.Pedersen B.K., Febbraio M.A. Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6. Physiol. Rev. 2008; 88: 1379–406.
32.Pedersen B.K., Steensberg A., Fischer C., Keller C., Keller P., Plomgaard P., Wolsk-Pedersen E., Febbraio M. The metabolic role of Il-6 produced during exercise: is Il-6 an exercise factor? Proc. Nutr. Soc. 2004; 63: 263–267.
33.Peters E.M. Exercise, immunology and upper respiratory tract infection. Int. J. Sports Med. 1997; 18 (Suppl 1): 69–77.
34.Rahimi R., Ghaderi M., Mirzaei B., Ghaeni S., Faraji H., Vatani D.S., Rahmani-Nia F. Effects of very short rest periods on immunoglobulin A and cortisol responses to resistance exercise in men. J. Human Sport Exerc. 2010; 5: 146–157.
35.Rantonen P.J., Penttilä I., Meurman J.H., Savolainen K., Närvänen S., Helenius T. Growth hormone and cortisol in serum and saliva. Acta Odontol. Scand. 2000; 58: 299–303.
36.Scherr J., Braun S., Schuster T., Hartmann C., Moehlenkamp S., Wolfarth B., Pressler A., Halle M. 72-h kinetics of high-sensitive troponin T and inflammatory markers after marathon. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2011; 43: 1819–1827.
37.Viru A., Viru M. Cortisol – essential adaptation hormone in exercise. Int. J. Sports Med. 2004; 25: 461–464.
38.Webster J.I., Tonelli L., Sternberg E.M. Neuroendocrine regulation of immunity. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2002; 20: 125–163.
39.Woof J.M., Kerr M.A. The function of immunoglobulin A in immunity. J. Pathol. 2006; 208: 270–282.
40.Zauber H., Mosler S., Hesberg von A., Schulze W.X. Dynamics of salivary proteins and metabolites during extreme endurance sports – a case study. Proteomics 2012; 12: 2221–2235.
41.Zimecki M., Artym J. The effect of psychic stress on the immune response. Post. Hig. Med. Dosw. 2004; 58: 166–175.