Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine

ISSN: 2300-9705     eISSN: 2353-2807     DOI: 10.18276/cej.2016.2-05
CC BY-SA   Open Access   DOAJ

Lista wydań / Vol. 14, No. 2/2016
The Associations of Selected Lifestyle Patterns and Lung Cancer Risk: An Evidence-based Update

Rok wydania:2016
Liczba stron:17 (37-53)
Słowa kluczowe: alcohol consumption body weight diet lung cancer physical activity sex hormone smoking
Autorzy: Basil H. Aboul-Enein
School of Health Sciences, University of South Dakota, USA

Joanna Kruk
Faculty of Physical Culture and Health Promotion, University of Szczecin, Poland

Abstrakt

Diagnosis of lung cancer (LC) has been fraught with difficulty and by the time of definitive diagnosis, most patients are in later stages of the disease. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that lifestyle behaviors play an etiological role in LC risk; however data in the literature on this topic often appears inconclusive or require further study. Understanding of the mechanisms operating between lifestyle patterns and their impact on LC is important for the disease’s prevention and treatment. The purpose of this study was to review the current evidence on the role of diet, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sex hormone use in LC development based on meta-analyses, systematic reviews and previously published epidemiologic studies. Regarded as the foremost cause of LC, evidence from studies have indicated that tobacco smoking causes LC. Additionally, exposure to outdoor air pollution and/or occupational-related exposures increase LC risk. Further, frequent consumption of red meat, processed meat increases adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Inverse associations between the disease risk and BMI ≥25 kg/m2, higher level of physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption with a high frequency were reported. Future studies are warranted to validate the association between histologic subtypes of LC and lifestyle patterns.
Pobierz plik

Plik artykułu

Bibliografia

1.Ahn, J., Weinstein, S.J., Snyder, K., Pollak, M.N., Virtamo, J., Albanes, D. (2006). No association between serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein–3, and lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15, 2010–2112.
2.AICR/WCRF. Policy and Action for Cancer Prevention, 2009 Cancer Facts & Figures 2010, ACS. www.aicr.org Americans can prevent 1/3 of the most common cancers.
3.Ainsworth, B.E., Haskell, W.L., Whitt, W.C., Irwin, M.L., Swartz, A.M., Strath, S.J., et al. (2000). Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 32, 498–516.
4.Albanes, D. (1999). Βeta-carotene and lung cancer: a case-control study. Am J Clin Nutr, 69 (6), 1345–1350.
5.Alberg, A. (2002). The influence of cigarette smoking on circulating concentrations of antioxidant micronutrients. Toxicology, 180, 121–137.
6.Albrecht, T.A., Taylor, A.G. (2012). Physical activity in patients with advanced-stage cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Clin J Oncol Nurs, 16 (3), 293–300.
7.American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity (ACS) retrieved from www.cancer.org/healthy/ eathealthygetactive/acsguidelinesonnutritionphysicalactivityforcancerprevention/acs-guidelines-on-nutrition-andphysical- activity-for-cancer-prevention-guidelines.
8.Anzuini, F., Battistella, A., Izzotti, A. (2011). Physical activity and cancer prevention: a review of current evidence and biological mechanisms. J Prev Med Hyg, 52, 174–180.
9.Asami, S., Manabe, H., Miyake, J., Tsurudome, Y., Hirano, T., Yamaguchi, R., et al. (1997). Cigarette smoking induces an increase in oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in a central site of the human lung. Carcinogenesis, 18, 1763–1766.
10.Baik, C.S., Strauss, G.M., Speizer, F.E., Feskanich, D. (2010). Reproductive factors, hormone use, and risk for lung cancer in postmenopausal women, the Nurses’ Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 19 (10), 2525–2533.
11.Besaratinia, A., Pfeifer, G.P. (2008). Second-hand smoke and human lung cancer. Lancet Oncol, 9 (7), 657–666.
12.Brizio, M.L.R., Hallal, P.C., Lee, I.M., Domingues, M.R. (2016). Physical activity and lung cancer: a case-control study in Brasil. J Phys Act Health, 13 (3), 257–261.
13.Büchner, F.L. Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B., Linseisen, J., Boshuizen, H.C., Kiemeney, L.A., Ros, M.M., et al. (2010). Fruits and vegetables consumption and the risk of histological subtypes of lung cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Cancer Causes Control, 21, 357–371.
14.Buffart, L.M., Singh, A.S., van Loon, E.C.P., Vermeulen, H.I., Brug, J., Chinapaw, M.J. (2014). Physical activity and the risk of developing lung cancer among smokers: a meta-analysis. J Sci Med Sport, 17, 67–71.
15.Bunn, P.A. Jr. (2012). Worldwide overview of the current status of lung cancer diagnosis and treatment. Arch Pathol Lab Med, 136, 1478–1481.
16.Butler, L.M., Montague, J.A., Koh, W.P., Wang, R., Yu, M.C., Yuan, J.M. (2013). Fried meat intake is a risk factor for lung carcinoma in a prospective cohort of Chinese men and women in Singapore. Carcinogenesis, 34, 1794–1799.
17.Calle, E.E., Kaak, R. (2004). Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer, 4, 579–591.
18.Caspersen, C.J., Powell, .KE., Christensen, G.M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Rep, 100, 126–131.
19.Chen, X., Cai, L. (2009). Meta-analysis of the effects on hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives associated with female lung cancer risk. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, 38 (6), 672–676.
20.Chiolero, A., Wietlisbach, V., Ruffeux, C., Paccaud, F., Cornuz,J. (2006). Clustering of risk behaviors with cigarette consumption: a population-based survey. Prev Med, 42, 348–353.
21.Church, D.F., Pryor, W.A. (1985). Free radical chemistry of cigarette smoke and its toxicological implications. Environ Health Perspect, 64, 111–126.
22.Couraud, S., Zalcman, G., Milleron, B., Morin, F., Souquet, P.J. (2012). Lung cancer in never smokers – a review. Eur J Cancer, 48, 1299–1311.
23.Devesa, S.S., Bray, F., Vizcaino, A.P., Parkin, D.E. (2005). International lung cancer trends by histologic type: male:female differences diminishing and adenocarcinoma rates rising. Int J Cancer, 117, 294–299.
24.Dhillon, H.M., van der Ploeg, H.P., Bell, M.L., Boyer, M., Clarke, S., Vardy, J. (2012). The impact of physical activity on fatigue and quality of life in lung cancer patients: a randomised controlled trial protocol. BMC Cancer, 12, 572, DOI: 10.1186/1471–2407–12–572.
25.Dupont, I., Lucas, D., Clot, P., Menez, C., Albano, E. (1998). Cytochrome P450 2E1 inducibility and hydroxyethyl radical formation among alcoholics. J Hepatol, 28, 564–571.
26.Eichholzer, M., Gutzwiller, F. (1998). Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and N-nitroso compounds and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Nutr Rev, 56, 95–105.
27.Emaus, A., Thune, I. (2011). Physical activity and lung cancer prevention. Recent Results Cancer Res, 186, 101–133.
28.Engchuan, W., Chan, J.H. (2015). Pathway activity transformation for multi-class classification of lung cancer dataset. Neurocomputing, 165, 81–89.
29.Environmental Protection Agency: Exposure to radon causes lung cancer in non-smokers and smokers alive. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection. Agency, 2011.
30.Ferlay, J., Soerjomataram, I., Dikshit, R., Eser, S., Mathers, C., Rebelo, M., et al. (2015). Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer, 136 (5), E359–386.
31.Filaire, E., Dupuis, C., Galvaing, G., Aubreton, S., Laurent, H., Richard, R., et al. (2013). Lung cancer: what are the links oxidative stress, physical activity and nutrition. Lung Cancer, 82, 383–389.
32.Fowles, J., Dybing, E. (2003). Application of toxicological assessment principles to the chemical constituents of cigarette smoke. Tobacco Control, 12, 424–30.
33.Freudenheim, J.L., Ritz, J., Smith-Warner, S.A., Albanes, D., Bandera, E.V., van den Brandt, P.A., et al. (2005). Alcohol consumption and the risk of lung cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr, 82, 657–667.
34.Friedenreich, C.M. (2011). Physical activity and breast cancer: review of the epidemiologic evidence and biologic mechanisms. Recent Results Cancer Res, 188, 125–139.
35.Friedenreich, C.M., Orenstein, M.R. (2002). Physical activity and cancer prevention: etiologic evidence and biological mechanisms. J Nutr, 132, 3456–3464.
36.Garcia-Tirado, J., Rieger-Reyes, C., Saz-Peiro, P. (2012). Effects of flavonoids in the prevention of lung cancer: systematic review. Med Clin, 139, 358–363.
37.Gauci, C., Delikata, N. (2011). Prevention of cancer through lifestyle change and screening. J Malta College Pharm Pract, 17, 21–24.
38.Gnagnarella, P., Maisonneuve, P., Bellomi, M., Rampinelli, C., Bertolotti, R., Spaggiari, L., et al. (2013a). Red meat, Mediterranean diet and lung cancer risk among heavy smokers in the COSMOS screening study. Ann Oncol, 24 (10), 2606–2611.
39.Gnagnarella, P., Maisonneuve, P., Bellomi, M., Rampinelli, C., Bertolotti, R., Spaggiari, L., et al. (2013b). Nutrient intake and nutrient patterns and risk of lung cancer among heavy smokers: results from the COSMOS screening study with annual low-dose CT. Eur J Epidemiol, 28 (6), 503–511.
40.Goldstraw, P., Ball, D., Jett, J.R., Le Chevalier, T., Lim, E., Nicholson, A.G., et al. (2011). Non-small-cell lung cancer. Lancet, 378, 1727–1740.
41.Gonullu, G., Ersoy, C., Ersoy, A., Evrensel, T., Basturk, B., Kurt, E., et al. (2005). Relation between insulin resistance and serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in overweight or obese women with early stage breast cancer. Cytokine, 31, 264–269.
42.Granger, C.L., McDonald, C.F., Berney, S., Chao, C., Denehy, L. (2011). Exercise intervention to improve exercise capacity and health related quality of life for patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review. Lung Cancer, 72, 139–153.
43.Hamajima, N., Hirose, K., Tajima, K., Rohan, T., Calle, E.E., Heath, C.W. Jr, et al. (2002). Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancercollaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58,515 women with breast cancer and 95,067 women without the disease. Br J Cancer, 87, 1234–1245.
44.Jaganjac, M., Tirosh, O., Cohen, G., Sasson, S., Zarkovic, N. (2013). Reactive aldehydes-second messengers of free radicals in diabetes mellitus. Free Radical Research, 47 (Supp. 1), 39–48.
45.Jemal, A., Bray, F., Center, M.M., Ferlay, J., Ward, E., Forman, D. (2011). Global cancer statistic. CA Cancer J Clin, 61, 69–90.
46.Jensen, W., Oechsle, K., Baumann, H.J., Mehnert, A., Klose, H., Bloch, W., et al. (2014). Effects of exercise training programs on physical performance and quality of life in patients with metastatic lung cancer undergoing palliative chemotherapy – a study protocol. Contemp Clin Trials, 37 (1), 120–128.
47.Kabat, G.C., Wynder, E.L. (1992). Body mass index and lung cancer. Am J Epidemiol, 135, 769–774.
48.Kamsa-Ard, S., Promthet, S., Lewington, S., Burrett, J.A., Sherliker, P., Kamsa-Ard, S., et al. (2013). Association between smoking and mortality: Khon Kaen cohort study. Thailand. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14 (7), 2643–2647.
49.Katanoda, K., Marugame, T., Salka, S. (2008). Population attributable fraction of mortality associated with tobacco smoking in Japan: a pooled analysis of free large-scale cohort studies. J Epidemiol, 18 (6), 251–264.
50.Khan, N., Afag, F., Mukhtar, H. (2010). Lifestyle factor for cancer: evidence from human studies. Cancer Lett, 293, 133–143.
51.Kim, K.H., Jahan, S.A., Kabir, E., Brown, R.J. (2013). A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects. Environ Int, 60, 71–80.
52.Klaunig, J.E., Kamendulis, L.M., Hocevar, B.A. (2010). Oxidative stress and oxidative damage in carcinogenesis. Toxicol Pathol, 38, 96–109.
53.Korte, J.E., Brennan, P., Henley, S.J., Boffetta, P. (2002). Dose-specific meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis of the relation between alcohol consumption and lung cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol, 155, 496–506.
54.Koutsokera, A., Kiagia, M., Saif, M.W., Souliotis, K., Syrigos, K.N. (2013). Nutrition habits, physical activity, and lung cancer: an authoritative review. Clin Lung Cancer, 14 (4), 342–350.
55.Kruk, J. (2010). Physical activity and breast cancer morbidity among women in the Region of Western Pomerania. Szczecin: Szczecin University Press.
56.Kruk, J. (2011). Physical exercise and oxidative stress. Medicina Sportiva, 15, 1, 30–40.
57.Kruk, J., Aboul-Enein, H.Y. (2006). Environmental exposure, physical activity and other behavioral risk factors in breast cancer. Curr Cancer Therapy Rev, 2 (1), 3–21.
58.Kruk, J., Czerniak, U. (2013). Physical activity and its relation to cancer risk: updating the evidence. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 3993–4003.
59.Kruk, J., Duchnik, E. (2014). Oxidative stress and skin disease: possible role of physical activity. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15 (2), 561–568.
60.Kukiełka, E,. Cederbaum, A.I. (1992). The effect of chronic ethanol consumption on NADH – and NADPH – dependent generation of reactive oxygen intermediates by isolated rat liver nuclei. Alcohol, 27, 233–239.
61.Lam, T.K., Cross, A.J., Consonni, D., Randi, G., Bagnardi, V., Bertazzi, P.A., et al. (2009). Intakes of red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagens increase lung cancer risk. Cancer Res, 69, 932–939.
62.Lam, T.K., Moore, S.C., Brinton, L.A., Smith, L., Hollenbeck, A.R., Gretchen, L., et al. (2013). Anthropometric measures and physical activity and the risk of lung cancer in never-smokers: a prospective cohort study. PLoS ONE, 8 (8), e70672.
63.Laszlo, R. Hartveg, P., Laszlo, S., Otto, S., Prokopchuk, D., Steinacker, J.M. (2014). Physical activity and cancer. OA Sports Medicine, 2 (1), 1.
64.Lee, I.M., Sesso, H.D., Paffenbarger Jr, R.S. (1999). Physical activity and risk of lung cancer. Int J Epidemiol, 28, 620–625.
65.Lee, I.M., Shiroma, E.J., Lobelo, F., Puska, P., Blair, S.N., Katzmarzyk, P.T., Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. (2012). Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet, 380, 219–229.
66.Li, X., Bai, Y., Wang, S., Nyamathira, S.M., Zhang, X., Zhang, W., et al. (2015). Association of body mass index with chromosome damage levels and lung cancer risk among males. Sci Rep, 5, 9458. DOI: 10.1038/srep09458.
67.Lissowska, J., Foretova, L., Dąbek, J., Zaridze, D., Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N., Rudnai, P., et al. (2010). Family history and lung cancer risk: international multicentre case-control study in Eastern and Central Europe and meta-analyses. Cancer Causes Control, 21, 1091–1104.
68.Liu, Y., Sobue, T., Otani, T., Tsugane, S. (2004). Vegetables, fruit consumption and risk of lung cancer among middle-aged Japanese men and women. JPHC study. Cancer Causes Control, 15, 349–357.
69.Lowe, S.S., Watanabe, S.M., Baracos, V.E., Courneya, K.S. (2010). Physical activity interests and preferences in palliative cancer patients. Support Care Cancer, 18 (11), 1469–1475.
70.Lugman, M., Javed, M.M., Daud, S., Raheem, N., Ahmad, J., Khan, A.U. (2014). Risk factors for lung cancer in the Pakistani population. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15 (7), 3035–3039.
71.Lynch, B.M., Neilson, H.K., Friedenreich, C.M. (2011). Physical activity and breast cancer prevention. In: K.S. Courneya, C.M. Friedenreich (eds.), Physical Activity and Cancer, Recent Results in Cancer Research, Chap. 2. Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidenberg, 186, 13–42.
72.Manautou, J.E., Carlson, G.P. (1991). Ethanol-induced fatty acid ethyl formation in vivo and vitro in rat lung. Toxicol, 70, 303–312.
73.Manda, G., Nechifor, M.T., Neagu, T.M. (2009). Reactive oxygen species, cancer and anti-cancer therapies. Curr Chem Biol, 3, 342–366.
74.Mao, Y., Pan, S., Wen, S.W., Johnson, K.C., Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group. (2003). The Canadian Cancer. Physical activity and the risk of lung cancer in Canada. Am J Epidemiol, 158, 564–575.
75.Matakidou, A., Eisen, T., Houlston, R.S. (2005). Systematic review of the relationship between family history and lung cancer risk. Br J Cancer, 93, 825–833.
76.McTiernan, A. (2008). Mechanisms linking physical activity with cancer. Nat Rev Cancer, 8, 205–211.
77.Missaoui, N., Hmissa, S., Landolsi, H., Korbi, S., Joma, W., Anjorin, A., et al. (2011). Lung cancer in central Tunisia: epidemiology and clinicopathological features. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 2305–2309.
78.Mukti, R.F., Samadder, P.D., Emran, A., Ahmed, F., Bin Imran, I., Malaker, A., et al. (2014). Score based risk assessment of lung cancer and its evaluation for Bangladeshi people. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 7021–7027.
79.National Cancer Institute (NCI): SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Lung and Bronchus Cancer. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Health, 2011. Available online 2015: http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/lungb.html.
80.National Cancer Prevention – Lung Cancer Prevention Patient/Health Professional. Retrieved from http:www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ pdq/prevention/lung/HealthProfessional/page//AllPages.
81.Nieman, D.C., Pedersen, B.K. (1999). Exercise and immune function: recent development. Sports Med, 27, 73–80.
82.Norton, K., Norton, L., Sadgrove, D. (2010). Position statement on physical activity and exercise intensity terminology. J Sci Med Sport, 13, 496–502.
83.Oh, I.H., Yoon, S.J., Yoon, T.Y., Choi, J.M., Choe, B.K., Kim, E.J., et al. (2012). Health and economic burden of major cancer due to smoking in Korea. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 1525–1531.
84.Panagiotakos, D.B., Pitsavos, C., Chrysohoou, C., Kavouras, S., Stefanadis, C., ATTICA Study (2005). The association between leisure-time physical activity and inflammatory and coagulation markers related to cardiovascular disease: the ATTICA Study. Prev Med, 40, 432–437.
85.Parent, M.E., Rousseau, M.C., El-Zein, M., Latreille, B. (2011). Occupational and recreational physical activity during adult life and the risk of cancer among men. Cancer Epidemiol, 35, 151–159.
86.Pasanen, A., Heikkilä, M., Rautavuoma, K. (2010). Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-3alpha is subject to extensive alternative splicing in human tissues and cancer cells and is regulated by HIF-1 but not HIF-2. Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 42 (7), 1189–1200.
87.Pesatori, A.C., Carugno, M., Consonni, D., Hung, R.J., Papadoupolos, A., Landi, M.T., et al. (2013). Hormone use and risk for lung cancer: a pooled analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO). Br J Cancer, 109, 1954–1964.
88.Pinsky, P.F. (2006). Racial and ethnic differences in lung cancer incidence: how much is explained by differences in smoking patterns? (United States). Cancer Causes Control, 17 (8), 1017–1024.
89.Pletnikoff, P.P., Tuomainen, T.P., Laukkanen, J.A., Kauhanen, J., Rauramaa, R., Ronkainen, K., et al. (2016). Cardiorespiratory fitness and lung cancer risk: A prospective population based cohort study. J Sci Med Sport, 19, 98–102.
90.Qin, J., Yang, T., Kong, F., Zhou, Q. (2013). Oral contraceptive use and uterine leiomyoma risk: a meta-analysis based on cohort and case-control studies. Arch Gynecol Obstet, 288 (1), 139–148.
91.Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Andersen, Z.J., Beelen, R., Samoli, E., Stafoggia, M., Weinmayr, G., et al. (2013). Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Lancet Oncol, 14 (9), 813–822.
92.Ramirez, M.R., Estévez, M., Morcuende, D., Cava, R. (2004). Effect of the type frying culinary fat on volatile compounds isolated in fried pork loin chops by using SPME-GC-MS. J Agric Food Chem, 52 (25), 7637–7643.
93.Reeves, G.K., Pirie, K., Beral, V., Green, J., Spencer, E., Bull, D., et al. (2007). Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study. BMJ, 335 (7630), 1134.
94.Renehan, A.G. (2011). Epidemiology of overweight/obesity and cancer risk. In: McTiernan A. ed. Physical Activity, Dietary, Caloric Restriction, and Cancer. Springer New York, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London.
95.Renehan, A.G., Roberts, D.L., Dive, C. (2008). Obesity and cancer: pathophysiological and biological mechanisms. Arch Physiol Biochem, 114, 71–83.
96.Renehan, A.G., Tyson, M., Egger, M., Richard, F., Heller, R.F., Zwahlen, M. (2008). Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet, 371, 569–578.
97.Renehan, A.G., Zwahlen, M., Minder, C., O’Dwyer, S.T., Shalet, S.M., Egger, M. (2004). Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF binding protein–3, and cancer risk: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Lancet, 363, 1346–1353.
98.Reuter, S., Gupta, S.C., Chaturvedi, M.M., Aggarwal, B.B. (2010). Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: How are they linked? Free Radic Biol Med, 49, 1603–1616.
99.Ruiz, R.B., Hernández, P.S. (2014). Diet and cancer: risk factors and epidemiological evidence. Mauritas, 77, 202–208.
100.Rundle, A. (2005). Molecular epidemiology of physical activity and cancer. Cancer Epidem Biomark Prev, 14, 227–236.
101.Rundle, A., Orjuela, M., Mooney, L., Tang, D., Kim, M., Calcagnotto, A., et al. (2005). Preliminary studies on the effect of moderate physical activity on blood levels of glutathione. Biomarkers, 10, 390–400.
102.Saracci, R. (1987). The interactions of tobacco smoking and other agents in cancer etiology. Epidemiol Res, 9, 175–193.
103.Schmidt. A., Jung, J., Ernstmann, N., Driller, E., Neuman, M., Staratschek-Jox, A., et al. (2012). The association between active participation in a sports club, physical activity and social network on the development of lung cancer in smokers: a case-control study. BMC Res Notes, 5, 2. DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-2.
104.Shephard, R.J., Rhind, S., Shek, P.N. (1995). The impact of exercise on the immune system: NK cells, interleukins 1 and 2, and related responses. Exerc Sports Sci Rev, 23, 215–241.
105.Siegfried, J.M. (2010). Early changes in pulmonary gene expression followed tobacco exposure shed light on the role of estrogen metabolism in lung carcinogenesis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 3, 692–695.
106.Sormunen, J., Bäckmand, H.M., Sarna, S., Kujala, U.M., Kaprio, J., Dyba, T., et al. (2004). Lifetime physical activity and cancer incidence – a cohort study of former elite athletes in Finland. J Sci Med Sport, 17, 479–484.
107.Speck, R.M., Courneya, K.S., Masse, L.C., Duval, S., Schmitz, K.H. (2010). An update of controlled physical activity trials in cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cancer Survivorship, 4, 87–100.
108.Sprague, B.L., Trentham-Dietz, A., Klein, B.E., Klein, R., Cruickshanks, K.J., Lee, K.E., et al. (2008). Physical activity, white blood cell count, and lung cancer risk in prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarker Prev, 17, 2714–2722.
109.Steindorf, K. (2013). The role of physical activity in primary cancer prevention. Eur Rev Aging Phys Act, 10, 33–36.
110.Straif, K., Benbrahim-Tallaa, L., Baan, R., Grosse, Y., Secretan, B., El Ghissassi, F., et al. (2009). A review of human carcinogens – part C: metals, arsenic, dusts, and fibres. Lancet Oncol, 10 (5), 453–454.
111.Sugimura, T., Wakabayashi, K., Nakagama, H., Nagao, M. (2004). Heterocyclic amines: mutagens/carcinogens produced during cooking of meat and fish. Cancer Sci, 95 (4), 290–299.
112.Sun, J.Y., Shi, L., Gao, X.D., Xu, S.F. (2012). Physical activity and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 3143–3147.
113.Tachfouti, N., Bekacemi, Y., Raherison, C., Bekkali, R., Benider, A., Nejjari, C. (2012). First data on direct costs of lung cancer management in Morocco. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 1547–1551.
114.Takata, Y., Xiang, Y.B., Yang, G., Li, H., Gao, J., Cai, H., et al. (2013). Intakes of fruits, vegetables, and related vitamins and lung cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Men’s Health Study (2002–2009). Nutr Cancer, 65 (1), 51–61.
115.Tardon, A., Lee, W.J., Delgado-Rodriguez, M., Dosemeci, M., Albanes, D., Hoover, R., et al. (2005). Leisure-time physical activity and lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control, 16, 389–397.
116.Thun, M.J., Hannan, L.M., Adams-Campbell, L.L., Boffetta, P., Buring, J.E., Feskanich, D., et al. (2008). Lung cancer occurrence in never-smokers: an analysis of 13 cohorts and 22 cancer registry studies. PLoS Med, 5 (9), e185.
117.Thune, I., Lund, E. (1997). The influence of physical activity on lung-cancer risk: a prospective study of 81,516 men and women. Int J Cancer, 70, 57–62.
118.Ulas, A., Tokluoglu, S., Kos, M., Silay, K., Akinci, S., Oksuzoglu, B., et al. (2015). Lung cancer in women, a different disease: survival differences by sex in Turkey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 815–822.
119.Valko, M., Leibfritz, D., Moncol, J., Cronin, M.T., Mazur, M., Telser, J. (2007). Free radicals and antioxidant in normal physiological function and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 39, 44–84.
120.Valluru, L., Dasari, S., Wudayagiri, R. (2014). Role of free radicals and antioxidants in gynecological cancers: current status and future prospects. Oxid Antioxid Med Sci, 3, 15–26.
121.Vollset, S.E., Tverdal, A., Gjessing, H.K. (2006). Smoking and deaths between 40 and 70 years of age in women and men. Ann Intern Med, 144, 381–389.
122.Wang, J.W., Gong, X.H., Ding, N., Chen, X.F., Sun, L., Tang, Z., et al. (2015). The influence of comorbid chronic diseases and physical activity on quality of life in lung cancer survivors. Support Care Cancer, 23, 1383–1389.
123.Weng, C.J., Yen, G.C. (2012). Chemopreventive effect of dietary phytochemicals against cancer invasion and metastasis: phenolic acids, monophenol, polyphenol, and their derivatives. Cancer Treat Rev, 38, 76–87.
124.Winzer, B.M., Whiteman, D.C., Reeves, M.M., Paratz, J.D. (2011). Physical activity and cancer prevention: a systematic review of clinical trials. Cancer Causes Control, 22, 811–826.
125.Wood, S.L., Pernemalm, M., Crosbie, P.A., Whetton, A.D. (2014). The role of the tumor-microenvironment in lung cancer–metastasis and its relationship to potential therapeutic targets. Cancer Treat Rev, 40 (4), 558–566.
126.World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington, DC: AICR.
127.Wright, R.M., McManaman, J.L., Repine, J.E. (1999). Alcohol-induced breast cancer: a proposed mechanism. Free Radic Biol Med, 26, 348–354.
128.Wu, W., Yin, Z.H., Guan. P., Ren, Y.W., Zhou, B.S. (2014a). Association of oral contraceptives use and lung cancer risk among women: an updated meta-analysis based on cohort and case-control studies. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 1205–1210.
129.Wu, X.M., Chen, Y., Shao, Y., Zhou, X.L., Tang, W.R. (2014b). Association between cigarette smoking and RASSF1A gene promoter hypermethylation in lung cancer patients: a meta-analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15 (9), 8451–8454.
130.Yang, Y., Dong, J., Sun, K., Zhao, L., Zhao, F., Wang, L., et al. (2013). Obesity and incidence of lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer, 132 (5), 1162–1169.
131.Yano, T., Haro, A., Shikada, Y., Maruyama, R., Maehara, Y. (2011). Non-small cell lung cancer in never smokers as a representative “non-smoking-associated lung cancer” epidemiology and clinical features. Int J Clin Oncol, 16 (4), 287–293.
132.Yeon, J.Y., Suh, Y.J., Kim, S.W., Baik, H.W., Sung, C.J., Kim, H.S., et al. (2011). Evaluation of dietary factors in relation to the biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in breast cancer risk. Nutrition, 27, 912–918.
133.Yuan, H.L., Liu, X.L., Dai, Q.C., Song, H. (2015). Exogenous natural glycoprotein multiple mechanisms of anti-tumor activity. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 1331–1336.
134.Yuan, J.M., Gao, Y.T., Murphy, S.E., Carmella, S.G., Wang, R., Zhong, Y., et al. (2012). Urinary levels of cigarette smoke constituent metabolites are prospectively associated with lung cancer development in smokers. Cancer Res, 71, 6749–6757.
135.Zahir, S.T., Mirtalebi, M. (2012). Survival of patients with lung cancer, Yazd, Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 4387–4391.
136.Zhong, S., Ma, T., Chen, L., Chen W., Lv M., Zhang X., et al. (2016). Physical activity and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Clin J Sport Med, 26 (3), 173–181.