Transport is the basis of the European process of integration, closely connected with the creation of the internal market, which facilitates employment and economic growth. Structural changes occurring in the member states are also related to the sector of road transport, which has been gaining more and more importance for the development of the Polish economy since 2004. The main aim of the undertaken research was to analyze structural changes taking place on the European transport market and to determine their influence on Polish road carriers. The study is based on an analysis and evaluation of selected statistical data helping assess structural changes in the market of international cargo transport in the years 2008–2014, as well as indicate how these translate into the developmental prospects of the sector. While conducting an analysis of the structural changes that occurred on the market of international road transport of cargo in the years 2008–2014, one may notice both chances of development for the Polish sector, as well as short- and long-term threats. Short-term threats include the growing competition from Southern European companies due to their lower costs of labor, as countries from this region began to compete on Western European markets after joining the European Union. In the long-term perspective, transport companies will have to face increased participation of railway transport in the transport market—this kind of transport is ranked first in all European strategies as the most significant method of carrying goods within the Union.