Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine

ISSN: 2300-9705     eISSN: 2353-2807    OAI    DOI: 10.18276/cej.2017.4-08
CC BY-SA   Open Access   DOAJ  DOAJ

Lista wydań / Vol. 20, No. 4/2017
The Effect of 12-week-long Nordic Walking Exercise on Body Composition, Changes in Lipid and Carbohydrate Metabolism Indices, Concentration of Selected Adipokines and Calcidiol in Healthy Middle-aged Women

Autorzy: Łukasz Tota
Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University of Physical Education, Krakow, Poland

Wanda Pilch
Department of Cosmetology, Faculty of Rehabilitation, University of Physical Education, Krakow, Poland

Anna Piotrowska
Department of Cosmetology, Faculty of Rehabilitation, University of Physical Education, Krakow, Poland

Tomasz Pałka
Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University of Physical Education, Krakow, Poland

Paweł Pilch
Rydygier Memorial Hospital, Krakow, Poland
Słowa kluczowe: health-related training nordic walking middle-aged women exercise biochemistry
Rok wydania:2017
Liczba stron:12 (69-80)
Cited-by (Crossref) ?:


Research objective. This study aimed at analysing the changes in the level of somatic indicators, the secretion profile of selected adipokines, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism indices and calcidiol concentration after a 12-week-long nordic walking (NW) exercise in middle-aged women. Research material and methods. The study included 13 women aged 45.5±4.2 years who participated in a 12-week-long NW exercise, 3 times a week, 90 minutes each. Each of the women had individually determined workout intensity zones which were monitored based on the heart rate. Prior to the exercise programme and after it, somatic traits were assessed and blood was sampled in order to make biochemical analyses. Results. In the examined women, a decrease in mean body weight by 2.5 kg and a reduction in fat mass (FM), on average by 3.8 kg (i.e. 4.6%), coupled with an increase in lean body mass (LBM) by 1.3 kg, were observed after 36 workout units. A significant decrease in TC, LDL-C and TG concentrations and no changes in HDL-C concentration occurred after the exercise, which contributed to lowered atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and atherosclerosis risk index (ARI). Conclusions. Individualised and regular physical activity in the form of NW had a protective effect on the body, resulting in improved body composition, adiponectin secretion profile, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and calcidiol concentration in middle-aged women.
Pobierz plik

Plik artykułu


1.Alemzadeh, R., Kichler, J., Babar, G., Calhoun, M. (2008). Hypovitaminosis D in obese children and adolescents: relationship with adiposity, insulinsensitivity, ethnicity, and season. Metabolism, 2 (57), 183–191.
2.Biernat, E., Stupnicki, R., Gajewski, A. (2007). International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Wychowowanie Fizyczne i Sport, 1 (51), 47–54.
3.Bouassida, A., Chamari, K., Zaouali, M., Feki, Y., Zbidi, A., Tabka, Z. (2010). Review on leptin and adiponectin responses and adaptations to acute and chronic exercise. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44, 620–630.
4.Byberg, L., Melhus, H., Gedeborg, R., Sundstrom, J., Ahlbom, A. (2009). Total mortality after changes in leisure time physical activity in 50-year-old men:35-year follow-up of population based cohort. British Medical Journal, 338–688.
5.Cederberg, H., Koivisto, V., Jokelainen, J., Surcel, H., Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S., Rajala, U. (2012). Unacylated ghrelin is associated with changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile during an exercise intervention. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 76, 39–45.
6.Chevenne, D., Trivin, F., Porquet, D. (1999). Insulin assays and reference values. Diabetes & Metabolism, 25, 459–476.
7.Chudek, J., Adamczyk, M., Nieszporek, T., Więcek, A. (2006). The adipose tissue as an endocrine organ–a nephrologists perspective. Contributions to Nephrology, 151, 70–90.
8.Combs, T., Berg, A., Obici, S., Scherer, P., Rossetti, L. (2001). Endogenous glucose production is inhibited by the adipose-derived protein Acrp 30. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 108, 1875–1881.
9.Cummings, D., Frayo, R., Marmonier, C., Aubert, R., Chapelot, D. (2004). Plasma ghrelin levels and hunger scores in humans initiating meals voluntarily without time- and food-related cues. American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism, 287, E297–E304.
10.DeNino, W., Tchernof, A., Dionne, I., Toth, M., Adres P. (2001). Contribution of abdominal adiposity to age-related differences in insulin sensitivity and plasma lipids in healthy nonobese women. Diabetes Care, 24, 925–932.
11.Dobisova, M. (2004.) Atherogenic index of plasma [log(triglicerides/HDL-cholesterol)]: theoretical and practical implications. Clinical Chemistry, 50, 1113–1115.
12.Drygas, W., Jegier, A. (2003). Zalecenia dotyczące aktywności ruchowej w profilaktyce układu krążenia. Czynniki Ryzyka, 4/02, 76–84.
13.Dziedzic, E., Przychodzeń, S., Dąbrowski, M. (2016). The effects of vitamin D on severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis and lipid profile of cardiac patients. Archives of Medical Science, 6 (12), 1199–1206.
14.Foss, Y. (2009). Vitamin D deficiency is the cause of common obesity. Medical Hypotheses, 3 (72), 314–321.
15.Friedewald, W., Levy, R., Fredrickson, D. (1972). Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clinical Chemistry, 18, 499–502.
16.Güçlü, M. (2014). Comparing women doing regular exercise with sedentary women in terms of certain blood parameters, leptin level and body fat percentage. Collegium Antropologicum, 2 (38), 453–458.
17.Hagner, W., Hagner-Derengowska, M., Wiacek, M., Zubrzycki, I. (2009). Changes in level of VO2max, blood lipids and waist circumference in the response to moderate endurance training as a function of ovarian ageing. Menopause, 5 (16), 1009–1013.
18.Haluzik, M. (2005). Adiponectin and its potential in the treatment of obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance. Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, 6, 988–993.
19.Haskell, W., Lee, I., Russell, R., Powell, K., Blair, S. (2007). Physical activity and public health. Updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and American Heart Association. Circulation, 116, 1081–1093.
20.Hickey, M., Houmard, J., Considine, R., Tyndall, G., Midgette, J. (1997). Gender-dependent effects of exercise training on serum leptin levels in humans. American Physiological Society, 272, E562–E566.
21.Horowitz, J., Klein, S. (2000). Lipid metabolism during endurance exercise. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72 (2), 558S–263S.
22.Hu, G., Pekkarinen, H., Hanninen, O., Tian, H., Guo, Z. (2001). Relation between commuting, leisure time physical activity and serum lipids in a Chinese urban population. Annals of Human Biology, 4 (28), 412–421.
23.Jürimäe, J., Jürimäe, T. (2004). Plasma leptin responses to prolonged sculling in female rowers. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 44, 104–109.
24.Katzmarzyk, P. (2010). Physical activity, sedentarny behavior and health: paradigm paralysys or paradigm shift? Diabetes, 59 (11), 2717–2725.
25.King, J., Miyashita, M., Wasse, L., Stensel, D. (2010). Influence of prolonged treadmill running on appetite, energy intake and circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin. Appetite, 3 (54), 492–498.
26.King, J., Wasse, L., Broom, D., Stensel, D. (2010). Influence of brisk walking on appetite, energy intake, and plasma acylated ghrelin. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 442, 485–492.
27.Kokkinos, P., Myers, J. (2010). Exercise and physical activity: clinical outcomes and applications. Circulation, 16 (122), 1637–1648.
28.Kondo, T., Kobayashi, I., Murakami, M. (2006). Effect of exercise on circulating adipokine levels in obese young women. Endocrine Journal, 53, 189–195.
29.Kopff, B., Jegier, A. (2006). Physical activity and selected adipokines: adiponectin, leptin and resistin – Polish version. Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej, 115, 73–84.
30.Kozak-Szkopek, E., Baraniak, J., Mieczkowska, J. (2006). Prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors in the sixth decade of life – Polish version. Gerontologia Polska, 1 (14), 18–24.
31.Lowell, B., Shulman, G. (2005). Mitochondrial dysfunction and type 2 diabetes. Science, 307, 384–387.
32.Lubkowska, A., Dudzińska, W., Bryczkowska, I., Dołęgowska, B. (2015a). Body composition, lipid profile, adipokine concentration, and antioxidant capacity changes during interventions to treat overweight with exercise programme and whole-body cryostimulation. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 803197, 13.
33.Lubkowska, A., Radecka, A., Bryczkowska, I., Rotter, I., Laszczyńska, M., Dudzińska, W. (2015b). Serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations in relation body fat distribution, hematological indices and lipid profile in humans. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9 (12), 11528–11548.
34.Luc, G., Bard, J., Ferrieres, J., Evans, A., Amouyel, P. (2002). Value of HDL-cholesterol, apolopoprotein A-I, lipoprotein A-I, and lipoprotein A-I/A-II in prediction of coronary heart disease: the PRIME study. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 22, 1155–1161.
35.Macaluso, A., De Vito, G. (2004). Muscle strength, power and adaptations to resistance training in older people. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 91, 450–472.
36.Mackelvie, K., Meneilly, G., Elahi, D., Wong, A., Barr, S. (2007). Regulation of Appetite in Lean and Obese Adolescents after Exercise: Role of Acylated and Desacyl Ghrelin. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 92, 648–654.
37.Matthews, D., Hosker, J., Rudenski, A., Naylor, B., Treacker, D. (1985). Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and betacell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentration in man. Diabetolodia, 28, 412–419.
38.McGill, A., Stewart, J., Lithander, F., Strik, C., Poppitt, S. (2008). Relationships of low serum vitamin D3 with anthropometry and markers of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in overweight and obesity. Nutrition Journal, 7 (28), 4.
39.Mikalacki, M., Rajdo, I., Cokorilo, N., Korovliev, D., Smajic, M. (2012). Influence of Nordic walking on body composition of elderly women. HealthMed, 2 (6), 476–482.
40.Morgulec-Adamowicz, N., Marszałek, J., Jagustyn, P. (2011). Nordic walking-a new form of adapted physical activity: a literature review. Human Movement, 2 (12), 124–132.
41.Nes, B., Janszky, I., Wisløff, U., Støylen, A., Karlsen, T. (2013.) Age-predicted maximal heart rate in healthy subjects: The HUNT Fitness Study. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 23, 697–704.
42.Niemann, B., Chen, Y., Teschner, M., Li, L., Silber, R.E., Rohrbach, S. (2011). Obesity inducessigns of premature cardiac aging in younger patients: the role of mitochondria. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 5 (57), 577–585.
43.Nilsson, G., Ohrvik, J., Lonnberg, I., Hedberg, P. (2009). Ten-year survival in 75-year old men and women: predictive ability of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research, 1–7.
44.Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, M., Zahorska-Markiewicz, B. (2008). Otyłość jako choroba zapalna. Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej, 62, 249–257.
45.Perk, J., De Backer, G., Gohlke, H., Graham, I., Reiner, Z. (2012). European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. European Heart Journal, 33, 1635–1701.
46.Pilch, W., Tyka, A., Cebula, A., Sliwicka, E., Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, L., Tyka, A. (2016). Effects of 6-week Nordic walking training on changes in 25(OH)D blood concentration in women after 55 years of age. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness.
47.Pittas, A.G., Lau, J., Hu, F.B., Dawson-Hughes, B. (2007). The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and metaanalysis. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 92, 2017–2029.
48.Pojednic, R., Ceglia, L. (2014). The Emerging Biomolecular Role of Vitamin D in Skeletal Muscle. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 2 (42), 76–81.
49.Polly, P., Tan, T. (2014). The role of vitamin D in skeletal and cardiac muscle function. Frontiers in Physiology, 5 (16), 145.
50.Reznik, Y., Morello, R., Pousse, P., Mahoudeau, J., Fradin, S. (2002). The effect of age, body mass index, and fasting triglyceride level on postprandial lipemia is dependent on apolopoproteine E. Polymorphism in subjects with non-insulin-depondent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism, 9 (51), 1088–1092.
51.Rubin, D., Hackney, A. (2010). Inflammatory cytokines and metabolic risk factor during growth and maturation: influence of physical activity. Medicine and Sport Science, 55, 43–55.
52.Scheen, A. (2005). Diabetes mellitus in the elderly: insulin resistance and/or impaired insulin secretion? Diabetes & Metabolism, 31, 5S27–5S34.
53.Singh, A., Purohit, B. (2012). Physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity among Indian dental professionals. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 4 (9), 563–570.
54.Song, M., Yoo, Y., Choi, C., Kim, N. (2013). Effects of Nordic walking on body composition, muscle strength, and lipid profile in elderly women. Asian Nursing Research, 1 (7), 1–7.
55.Steinbacher, P., Eckl, P. (2015). Impact of oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle. Biomolecules, 2 (5), 356–377.
56.Tschentscher, M., Niederseer, D., Niebauer, J. (2013). Health benefits of nordic walking. A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 1 (44), 76–84.
57.Wren, A., Small, C., Ward, H., Murphy, K., Dakin, C. (2000). The novel hypothalamic peptide ghrelin stimulates food intake and growth hormone secretion. Endocrinology, 141, 4325–4328.
58.Yani-Komshian, H., Carantoni, M., Abbasi, F., Reaven, G. (2000). Relationship between several surrogate estimation of insulin resistance and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in healthy non-diabetic volunteers. Diabetes Care, 23, 171–175.