Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine

ISSN: 2300-9705     eISSN: 2353-2807     DOI: 10.18276/cej.2016.4-02
CC BY-SA   Open Access   DOAJ  DOAJ

Lista wydań / Vol. 16, No. 4/2016
Physical Activity of Polish and Turkish University Students as Assessed by IPAQ

Autorzy: Justyna Bednarek
University School of Physical Education, Kraków, Poland

Sylwia Pomykała
University School of Physical Education, Kraków, Poland

Monika Bigosińska
Department of Physical Education, Institute of Physical Education, State Higher Vocational School, Nowy Sącz, Poland

Zbigniew Szyguła
Department of Sport Medicine and Human Nutrition, Institute of Human Physiology, University School of Physical Education, Kraków, Poland
Słowa kluczowe: IPAQ physical activity students
Rok wydania:2016
Liczba stron:10 (13-22)
Cited-by (Crossref) ?:


Purpose: We examine physical activity levels of Polish and Turkish students to determine cross-cultural and gender differences in exercise habits. Methods: Our study assessed 50 students from Adnan Menderes University in Aydin, Turkey and 50 students from the University of Physical Education in Krakow, Poland. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ; short form). Results were expressed in MET-minutes/week (Metabolic Equivalent of Task). Results: More than half of the students (52%) engaged in moderate physical activity in the week prior to the survey, while a quarter of the students (37%) engaged in vigorous physical activity. Low levels of physical activity were reported by 11% of the students. Total physical activity per week, expressed in MET-minutes/week, was significantly higher for Polish students (5,953.51 MET) than for Turkish students (3,095.45 MET). Moderate physical activity was higher among Turkish students while vigorous physical activity was higher among Polish students. Physical activity contrasts were further exemplified between genders. Polish women engaged in significantly more (p < 0.05) total physical activity than Turkish women. Total physical activity, high-level physical activity, and moderate-level physical activity differences were not significant (p > 0.05) between Polish and Turkish men. Conclusion: Polish university students engage in more physical activity than students from Turkey. Men were more physically active in both countries. More than half of Turkish students do not meet minimum weekly physical activity the World Health Organization recommends for preserving health.
Pobierz plik

Plik artykułu


1.Abu-Omar, K., Rütten, A., Robine, J.M. (2004). Self-rated health and physical activity in the European Union. Social and Preventive Medicine, 49, 235–242.
2.Ammouri, A.A., Neuberger, G., Nashwan, A.J., Al-Haj, A.M. (2007). Determinants of self-reported physical activity among Jordanian adults. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 39 (4), 342–348.
3.Bauman, A., Bull, F., Chey, T., Craig, C.L., Ainsworth, E.B., Sallis, J.F., Bowles, H.R., Hagstromer, M., Sjostrom, M., Pratt, M., The IPS Group. (2009). The International Prevalence Study on Physical Activity: results from 20 countries. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 6, 21. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-6-21.
4.Bergier, B., Stępień, E., Niźnikowska, E., Bergier, J. (2014). Aktywność fizyczna kobiet i mężczyzn studiujących w Państwowej Szkole Wyższej w Białej Podlaskiej. Medycyna Ogólna i Nauki o Zdrowiu, 20 (2), 166–170.
5.Booth, M.L. (2000). Assessment of Physical Activity: An International Perspective. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71, 114–120. DOI: 10.1080/02701367.2000.11082794.
6.Brown, W.J., Trost, S.G., Bauman, A., Mummery, K., Owen, N. (2004). Test-retest reliability of four physical activity measures used in population surveys. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 7, 205–215.
7.Bruunsgaard, H. (2005). Physical activity and modulation of systemic low-level inflammation. The Journal of Cell Biology, 78, 1–17. DOI: 10.1189/jlb.0505247.
8.Craig, C.L., Marshall, A.L., Sjøstrom, M., Bauman, A.E., Booth, M.L., Ainsworth, B.E., Pratt, M., Ekelund, U., Yngve, A., Sallis, J.F., Oja, P. (2003). International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35, 1381–1395. DOI: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000078924.61453.FB.
9.Daskapan, A., Emine, H.T., Levent, E. (2006). Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity in University Students. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5, 615–620.
10.Drygas, W., Jegier, A., Bednarek-Gejo, A., Kostka, T. (2005). Long-term effects of various physical activity levels in preventing obesity an metabolic syndrome in Middle-aged men. The European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, 12, 28–34.
11.El-Gilany, A.H., Badawi, K., El-Khawaga, G., Awadalla, N. (2011). Physical activity profile of students in Mansoura University, Egypt. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 17 (8), 694–702.
12.Florindo, A.A., Guimarães, V.V., Caesar, C.L.G., Barros, M.B.A., Alves, M.C.G.P., Goldbaum, M. (2009). Epidemiology of leisure, transportation, occupational, and household physical activity: Prevalence and associated factors. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 6, 625–632.
13.Haase, A., Steptoe, A., Sallis, J.F., Wardle, J. (2004). Leisure-time physical activity in university students from 32 countries: associations with health beliefs, risk awareness and national economic development. Preventive Medicine, 39 (1), 182–190.
14.Haskell, W.L., Lee, I.M., Pate, R.R., Powell, K.E., Blair, S.N., Franklin, B.A., Macera, CA., Heath, GW., Thompson, PD., Bauman, A. (2007). Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Medical and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39 (8), 1423–1434. DOI: 10.1249/ mss.0b013e3180616b27.
15.Irwin, J.D. (2004). Prevalence of university students’ sufficient physical activity: a systematic review. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 98 (1), 927–943.
16.Janssen, I., Leblanc, A.G. (2010). Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 40–56. DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-7-40.
17.Karaca, A., Caglar, E., Cinemre, S.A. (2009). Physical activity levels of the young adults in an economically developing country: The Turkish sample. Journal of Human Kinetics, 22, 91–98.
18.Katzmarzyk, P.T., Church, T.S., Craig, C.L., (2009). Bouchard C. Sitting time and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, cancer. Medical and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41, 998–1005. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181930355.
19.Mabry, R.M., Reeves, M.M., Eakin, E.G., Owen, N. (2010). Evidence of physical activity participation among men and women in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council: a review. Obesity Review,11, 457–464.
20.Malina, R.M., Katzmarzyk, P.T. (2006). Physical activity and fitness in an international growth standard for preadolescent and adolescent children. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 27 (5), 295–313.
21.Mussino, A. (1999). Conceptual and operational problems in measuring participation in Sports. Bulletin 52nd Session of the International Statistical Institute. Helsinki.
22.Narring, F., Cauderay, M., Cavadini, C., Michaud, P.A. (1999). Physical fitness and sport activity of children and adolescents: methodological aspects of a regional survey. Social and Preventive Medicine, 44, 44–54. DOI: 10.1007/BF01667126.
23.Nelson, M.E., Rejeski, W.J., Blair, S.N., Duncan, P.W., Judge, J.O., King, A.C., Macera, C.A., Castaneda-Sceppa, C. (2007). Physical activity and public health in older adults: recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and The American Heart Association. Medical and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39 (8), 1435–1445. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.185650.
24.Penedo, F.J., Dahn, J.R. (2005). Exercise and Well-Being: A review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18 (2), 189–193.
25.Rütten, A., Vuillemin, A., Ooijendijk, W.T., Schena, F., Sjostrom, M., Stahl, T., Vanden Auweele, Y., Welshman, J., Ziemainz, H. (2003). Physical activity monitoring in Europe. The European Physical Activity Surveillance System (EUPASS) approach and indicator testing. Public Health Nutrition, 6, 377–384.
26.Shafy, H.E. (1998). Leisure time and its implication. In: Adolescence and state policy in Egypt, Ch VI. Cairo, Egypt, The Population Council. Regional Office for West Asia and North Africa.
27.Sokołowski, M. (2008). Międzynarodowy Kwestionariusz Aktywności Fizycznej (IPAQ) jako miernik oceny aktywności fizycznej studentów Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego. In: E. Szczepanowska, M. Sokołowski, (eds.), Aktywność fizyczna i odżywianie się, jako uwarunkowania promocji zdrowia (pp. 113–124). Poznań: Wielkopolska Wyższa Szkoła Turystyki i Zarządzania w Poznaniu.
28.Suğuksu, K. (2011). Physical activity level between Polish and Turkish university students (IPAQ). In: B. Bergier (ed.), Physical activity in health and disease (pp. 19–27). Biała Podlaska: Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska.
29.Touvier, M., Bertrais, S., Charreire, H., Vergnaud, A.C., Hercberg, S., Oppert, J.M. (2010). Changes in leisure-time physical activity and sedentarny behaviour at retirement: a prospective study in Middle-aged French subjects. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 14. DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-7-14.
30.Van Bottenburg, M., Rijnen, B., van Sterkenburg, J. (2005). Sports participation in the European Union. Trends and differences. Nieuwegein/’sHertogenbosch: Arko Sports Media/W.J.H. Mulier Institute.
31.Van der Horst, K., Paw, M., Twisk, J.W., Van Mechelen, W. (2007). A brief review on correlates of physical activity and sedentariness in youth. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 39 (8), 1241–1250.
32.WHO 2013. Global Health Observatory, Prevalence of insufficient Physical activity. Retreived from http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_ factors/physical_activity_text/en (July 2014).
34.www.healthcanada.ca/paguide Handbook for Canada’s physical activity guide to healthy active living, Health Canada, Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology.
36.Zhao, Y., Sigmund, E., Sigmundová, D., Lu, Y. (2007). Comparison of physical activity between Olomouc and Beijing university students using an International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 37 (4), 107–114.
37.Zatoński, W.A, (2011). HEM Project team. Epidemiological analisys of health situation development in Europe and its causes until 1990. Annals of Agriculture and Environmental Medicine, 18 (2), 194–202.
38.Zoeller, F.R.Jr. (2007). Physical activity and obesity: their interaction and implications for disease risk and the role of physical activity in healthy weight management. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 1 (6), 437–446. DOI: 10.1177/1559827607306889.