Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine

ISSN: 2300-9705     eISSN: 2353-2807
CC BY-SA   Open Access 

Lista wydań / Vol. 9, No. 1/2015
Effect of Deer Antler Velvet on Aerobic, Anaerobic and Strength Performance

Rok wydania:2015
Liczba stron:10 (17-26)
Słowa kluczowe: antler velvet strength training performance aerobic power anaerobic power
Autorzy: Craig Broeder
Exercising Nutritionally, Lisle, Illinois, USA

Conrad P. Earnest
Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University College Station, Texas, USA ; Nutrabolt International, Bryan, Texas, USA

Lyyn Panton
Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA

John Quindry
A School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA


Deer antler velvet (DAV) supplementation purportedly increases athletic performance; however, little data support this claim. The primary aim of our study is to examine DAV and exercise performance. We randomized 32 men (18–35 y) participating exclusively in resistance training (>4 y) to 10-weeks of randomly assigned, double blind, DAV (1350 mg, 2×/day) or placebo treatments. Primary outcomes included maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), maximal strength (1RM; bench press and squat) and anaerobic cycling power. Secondary outcomes included comprehensive blood profiles and body composition. We used general linear models to determine changes following treatment. Eighteen participants (n = 9) completed the study with DAV participants showing significant improvements in VO2max (4.30 ±0.45 to 4.72 ±0.60 L/min, P < 0.04). The placebo and DAV groups increased bench press and squat 1RM (both, P < 0.04); yet, when expressed relative to body mass, only the DAV group showed significant bench press (4%) and squat (10%; both, P < 0.02). Neither group improved cycling performance or showed adverse changes in blood chemistries. We did observe a significant reduction in LDL-C (12%) accompanying DAV supplementation and both groups significantly reduced percent body fat (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that DAV may have ergogenic effects in men participating solely in resistance training.
Pobierz plik

Plik artykułu


1.Aagaard P., Andersen J.L. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports. 2010; 20 (Suppl. 2): 39–47.
2.Allen M., Oberle K., Grace M., Russell A. Elk velvet antler in rheumatoid arthritis: phase II trial. Biol. Res. Nurs. 2002; 3 (3): 111–118
3.Costill D.L., Branam L., Eddy D., Fink W. Alterations in red cell volume following exercise and dehydration. J. Appl. Physiol. 1974; 37 (6): 912–916.
4.Costill D.L., Fink W.J. Plasma volume changes following exercise and thermal dehydration. J. Appl. Physiol. 1974; 37 (4): 521–525.
5.Francis S.M., Suttie J.M. Detection of growth factors and proto-oncogene mRNA in the growing tip of red deer (Cervus elaphus) antler using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). J. Exp. Zool. 1998; 281 (1): 36–42.
6.Goss R.J. Photoperiodic control of antler cycles in deer. VI. Circannual rhythms on altered day lengths. J. Exp. Zool. 1984; 230 (2): 265–271.
7.Lai A.K., Hou W.L., Verdon D.J., Nicholson L.F., Barling P.M. The distribution of the growth factors FGF-2 and VEGF, and their receptors, in growing red deer antler. Tissue Cell. 2007; 39 (1): 35–46.
8.Li C. Histogenetic aspects of deer antler development. Front Biosci. (Elite Ed). 2013; 5: 479–489
9.Li C., Suttie J.M. Histological studies of pedicle skin formation and its transformation to antler velvet in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Anat. Rec. 2000; 260 (1): 62–71.
10.Ronnestad B.R., Mujika I. Optimizing strength training for running and cycling endurance performance: A review. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports. 2013.
11.Sadighi M., Haines S.R., Skottner A., Harris A.J., Suttie J.M. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-II on the growth of antler cells in vitro. J. Endocrinol. 1994; 143 (3): 461–469.
12.Sale D.G. Neural adaptation to resistance training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1988; 20 (Suppl. 5): 135–145.
13.Savendahl L., Underwood L.E. Fasting increases serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in healthy, nonobese humans. J. Nutr. 1999; 129 (11): 2005–2008.
14.Sleivert G., Burke V., Palmer C., Walmsley A., Gerrard D., Haines S., Littlejohn R. The effects of deer antler velvet extract or powder supplementation on aerobic power, erythropoiesis, and muscular strength and endurance characteristics. Int. J. Sport Nu
15.Suttie J.M., Fennessy P.F., Corson I.D., Laas F.J., Crosbie S.F., Butler J.H., Gluckman P.D. Pulsatile growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors and antler development in red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus) stags. J. Endocrinol. 1989; 121 (2): 351–360.
16.Suttie J.M., Haines S.R. A review of dose level of deer velvet products in relation to efficacy. Gold Mountain. 2004.
17.Syrotuik D.G., MacFadyen K.L., Harber V.J., Bell G.J. Effect of elk velvet antler supplementation on the hormonal response to acute and chronic exercise in male and female rowers. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 2005; 15 (4): 366–385.
18.Wang B.X., Zhao X.H., Qi S.B., Kaneko S., Hattori M., Namba T., Nomura Y. Effects of repeated administration of deer antler extract on biochemical changes related to aging in senescence-accelerated mice. Chem. Pharm. Bull. Tokyo 1988a; 36 (7): 2587–2592.
19.Wang B.X., Zhao X.H., Qi S.B., Yang X.W., Kaneko S., Hattori M., Namba T., Nomura Y. Stimulating effect of deer antler extract on protein synthesis in senescence-accelerated mice in vivo. Chem. Pharm. Bull. Tokyo 1988b; 36 (7): 2593–2598.
20.Zhou Q.L., Guo Y.J., Wang L.J., Wang Y., Liu Y.Q., Wang Y., Wang B.X. Velvet antler polypeptides promoted proliferation of chondrocytes and osteoblast precursors and fracture healing. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999; 20 (3): 279–282.