Acta Politica Polonica

Previously: Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego. Acta Politica

ISSN: 2451-0432    OAI    DOI: 10.18276/ap.2020.49-01
CC BY-SA   Open Access   DOAJ  ERIH PLUS

Issue archive / 1/2020 (49)
Some praxeological remarks on the so-called “political correctness”, “group thinking” and related problems

Authors: Benon Zbigniew Szałek
Uniwersytet Szczeciński
Keywords: praxeology political correctness group thinking
Year of publication:2020
Page range:9 (5-13)
Cited-by (Crossref) ?:


This paper presents some reflections on the so-called “political correctness”, “group thinking” and related problems in the light of praxeology, which deals, inter alia, with factors increasing or/and decreasing efficiency, efficacity of human actions/activities such as decision making.
Download file

Article file


1.Aldag, R.J., Fuller, S.R. (1993). Beyond fiasco: A reappraisal of the groupthink phenomenon and a new model of group decision processes. Psychological Bulletin, 113 (3), 533-552.
2.Alger, D. (1998). Megamedia: How Giant Corporations Dominate Mass Media, Distort Competition, and Endanger Democracy. Lanham: Rowan and Littlefield.
3.Apăvăloaei, M. (2015). Is Politics a Subfield of Praxeology. The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics.
4.Bard, H., Cerf, K. (1994). The Official Politically Correct Dictionary and Handbook. London. Bernays, E. (1928). Propaganda. New York: H. Liveright.
5.Bernstein, R. (1990). The rising hegemony of the politically correct. The New York Times.
6.Bower-Bir, J.S., D’Amico, N.J. (2013). A Tool for All People, but Not All Occasions: How Voting Heuristics Interact with Political Knowledge and Environment. Bloomington: Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis. Cain, S. (2012). The rise of new groupthink. The New York Times.
7.Cialdini, R.B., Goldstein, N.J. (2004). Social influence: Compliance and conformity. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 591-621.
8.Clausewitz, C.v. (1989). On War. M. Howard, P. Part (eds and transl.). Princeton: Princeton University Press.
9.Cline, R.J.W. (1990). Detecting groupthink: methods for observing the illusion of unanimity. Communication Quarterly, 38 (2), 112-126. DOI: 10.1080/01463379009369748
10.Coghlan D., Brydon-Miller, M. (eds) (2014). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Action Research. Los Angeles: SAGE Publishing.
11.Cole, J.R. (2006). Academic freedom under fire. Daedalus, 134 (2), 5-17.
12.Collins English Dictionary (2014). Hesper Collins Publishing.
13.Colman, A.M. (2003). Dictionary of Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.
14.Cook, P., Heilman, C. (2012). Two types of self-censorship: public and private. Political Studies, 61 (1), 178-196. De Bono, E. (1967). The Use of Lateral Thinking. Mica Management Resources Inc. Warszawa: Wyd. Medium. De Bono, E. (1999). Six Thinking Hats, The McQuaig Group Inc. Warszawa: Wyd. Medium.
15.Downs, A. (1957). An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper Collins.
16.Dzenis, S., Nobre Faria, F. (2019). Political Correctness: The Twofold Protection of Liberalism. Philosophia, 1-20.
17.Espinas, A. (1890). Les Origines de la technologie. Revue Philosophique De La France Et De L’Etranger, 30, 295-314.
18.Feldstein, R. (1997). Political correctness: A response from the cultural left. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
19.Fish, S.E. (1994). There is no such thing as free speech, and it’s a good thing too. New York: Oxford University Press.
20.Flood, R. (1995). Solving Problem Solving. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
21.Fuller, S.R., Aldag, R.J. (1997). Challenging the mindguards: Moving small group analysis beyond groupthink.
22.In: P.’t Hart, E.K. Stern, B. Sundelius (eds), Beyond Groupthink: Political Group Dynamics and Foreign Policy Making, pp. 55-94. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
23.Gilens, M., Murakawa, N. (2002). Elite cues and political decision making. Political Decision Making, Deliberation and Participation, 6, 15-49.
24.Goidel, R.K., Shields, T.G. (1994). The Vanishing Marginals, the Bandwagon, and the Mass Media. Journal of Politics, 56 (3), 802-810.
25.Green, D.G. (2006). We’re (nearly) all victims now: How political correctness is undermining our liberal culture. London: Civitas.
26.Hankiss, E. (1986). Pułapki społeczne. Warszawa: PW Wiedza Powszechna.
27.Hildebrandt, M. (2005). Multikulturalismus und political correctness in den USA. Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwis-
29.Holder, R.W. (1987). The Language of Evasion, Hypocrisy, Prudery and Deceit. London.
30.Hollander, P. (1994). Imagined tyranny. Political correctness reconsidered. Academic Questions, 7 (4), 51-73. Horgan, J. (2013). Should reason on race and IQ be banned? Scientific American.
31.Janis, I. (1971). “Groupthink”. Psychology, 5 (6), 43-46, 74-76.
32.Janis, I. (1972). Victims of Groupthink: a Psychological Study of Foreign Policy Decisions and Fiascoes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
33.Janis, I. (1984). Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Kleist, H.v. (1985). Sämtliche Werke und Briefe. München: Helmut Sembdner, pp. 319-324.
34.Knowles, E. Elliot, J. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of New Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kościelny, R. (2019). Dwa światy: nasz i ich. Warszawska Gazeta, 22-23.
35.Krugman, P. (2012). The New Political Correctness. The New York Times.
36.Kula, H.M. (2005). Propaganda współczesna. Istota – właściwości. Toruń: Wyd. Adam Marszałek. Lasswell, H.D. (1930). Psychopathology and politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
37.Levin, A. (2010). The cost of free speech: Pornography, hate speech and their challenge to liberalism. Basingstoke:
38.Palgrave Macmillan.
39.Livni, E. (2019). Politically incorrect speech can be good politics, Quartz, 1-6.
40.Loury, G.C. (1994). Self-censorship in public discourse. A theory of “political correctness” and related phenomena.
41.Rationality and Society, 6 (4), 428-461.
42.Maoz, Z. (1990). Framing the national interest: The manipulation of foreign policy decisions in group settings. World politics, 43 (1), 77-110.
43.McLean, I. (1996). Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. New York: Oxford University Press. Mink, E. (2016). Trump’s Political Correctness Con Job. Huffington Post.
44.Moller, D. (2016). Dilemmas of political correctness. Journal of Practical Ethics, 4 (1), 1-22.
45.Morton, R., Mueller, D., Page, L., Torgler, B. (2015). Exit polls. Turnout, and bandwagon voting: Evidence from a natural experiment. European Economic Review, 77, 65-81. DOI:10.1016/j.euroecorev.2015.03.012
46.Nouzille, V. (2015). Les Tueurs de la Republique. Paris: Librairie Arthéme Fayard.
47.Obłój, K. (1994). Mikroszkółka zarządzania. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne, p. 193.
48.Osborn, A.F. (1963). Applied imagination. Principles and procedures of creative problem solving. New York: Charles
49.Scribner’s Sons.
50.Packer, D.J. (2009). Avoiding groupthink: whereas weakly identified members remain silent, strongly identified mem-
51.bers dissent about collective problems. Psychological Science, 20 (5), 546-548.
52.Paczuszka, A. (2018). Rosyjskie służby specjalne – czyli jak rozbić państwo. Łódź: Fundacja Wyszehradska.
53.Parekh, B. (2017). Limits of free speech. Philosophia, 45 (3), 931-935. DOI: 10.1007/s11406-016-9752-5
54.Petruszewycz, M. (1965). À propos de la praxéologie. Mathématiques et sciences humaines, 11, 11-18.
55.Rawson, H.A. (1981). A Dictionary of Euphemisms and Other Doubletalk. New York: Crown Publisher.
56.Rogers, T., Green, D.P., Ternovski, J., Young, C.F. (2017). Social pressure and voting: A field experiment in a high-salience election. Electoral Studies, 46, 87-100. DOI: 10.1016/j.electstud.2017.02.004
57.Rohrbach, B. (1969). Kreativ nach Regeln – Methode 635, eine neue Technik zum Lösen von Problemen. Absatzwirt- schaft, 12, 73-75.
58.Roper, C. (2019). Political correctness. Retrieved from: https:/
60.Rorty, R. (1998). Achieving our country: Leftist thought in twentieth-century America. Cambridge: Harvard University
62.Rosenblum, M., Schroeder, J., Gino, F. (2019). Tell it like it is: When politically incorrect language promotes authenticity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 15. 10.1037/pspi0000206
63.Roxburg, A. (2002). Preachers of Late: The rise of the far far right. London: Gibson Square Books. Rydlewski, G. (2009). Rządzenie w świecie megazmian. Warszawa: Elipsa.
64.Schafer, M., Crichlow, S. (2010). Groupthink versus high-quality decision-making in international relations. New York:
65.Columbia University Press.
66.Sparrow, R. (2002). Talking sense about political correctness. Journal of Australian Studies, 26 (73), 119-131. Stasińska, P. (2005). Political correctness, czyli poprawność polityczna w przestrzeni kulturowej i językowym obrazie
67.świata Amerykanów, Polaków i Rosjan. Scripta Neophilologica Posnaniensia, 7.
68.Sunstein, C.R., Hastie, R. (2014). Wiser: Getting Beyond Groupthink to Make Groups Smarter. Harvard Business
69.Review Press.
70.Sun Tzu (1963). The Art of War. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press.
71.Szałek, B.Z. (2011). The so-called political heuristics in the light of praxeology. Reality of Politics, 3.
72.Szałek, B.Z. (2012). The so-called “political heuristics” in the light of praxiology. Reality of Politics.
73.Szałek, B.Z. (2013). Some praxiological reflections on the so-called ‘Overton Window of Political Possibilities”, ‘fram- ing’, and related problems. Reality of Politics, 4, 237-257.
74.Szałek, B.Z. (2015). Geopolitics, Political Topology and Hybrid Warfare. Reality of Politics, 6, 86-97.
75.Szałek, B.Z. (2016). The blurred problem of foreign funding of civil society organizations in the light of political mar- keting, praxiology and hybrid warfare. Reality of Politics.
76.‘t Hart, P. (1990). Groupthink in Government: a Study of Small Groups and policy failure. Amsterdam: Rockland, MA: Swets and Zeitlinger.
77.‘t Hart, P., Stern, E.K., Sundelius, B. (1997). Beyond Groupthink: Political Group Dynamics and Foreign Policy-
78.-Making. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
79.‘t Hart, P. (1998). Preventing groupthink revisited: evaluating and reforming groups in government. Organizational
80.Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 73 (2-3), 306-326.
81.Turner, M.E., Pratkanis, A.R. (1998). Twenty-five years of groupthink theory and research: lessons from the evaluation
82.of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 73 (2-3), 105-115.
83.Tversky, A., Kahneman, D. (1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211, 453-458.
84.Van Gundy, A. (1984). Brainwriting for New Product Ideas: An Alternative to Brainstorming. Journal of Consumer
85.Marketing, 2, 67-74.
86.Vis, B. (2018). Heuristics and Political Elite’s Judgment and Decision-Making. DOI:10.1177/1478929917750311
87.Webster’s Third New International Dictionary (1993). Ph. Babcock Gove ed. Merriam Webster Inc. Cologne: Könemann
88.Verlagsgesellschaft MBH.
89.Wexler, M.N. (1995). Expanding the groupthink explanation to the study of contemporary cults. Cultic Studies Journal,
90.12 (1), 49-71.
91.Wilcox, C. (2010). Groupthink: an impediment to success. Bloomington: Xlibris Corp.
92.Williams, J. (2016). Academic freedom in an age of conformity: Confronting the fear of knowledge. New York: Palgrave. DOI: 10.1057/9781137514790
94.Wilson, J.K. (1995). The myth of political correctness: The conservative attack on higher education. Durham: Duke
95.University Press.
96.Wrzosek, M. (2018). Wojny przyszłości. Warszawa: Fronda PL.