Analiza i Egzystencja

ISSN: 1734-9923     eISSN: 2300-7621    OAI    DOI: 10.18276/aie.2017.39-04

Lista wydań / 39 (2017)
Granice autonomii etyki. O potrzebie uwzględniania wyników nauk empirycznych w etyce (The limits of ethics autonomy. Ethics takes into account the empirycal data)

Autorzy: Natasza Szutta
Uniwersytet Gdański
Słowa kluczowe: psychological realism ethical theory utilitarianism deontology virtue ethics automatic processes reflective processes moral education
Rok wydania:2017
Liczba stron:24 (49-72)
Cited-by (Crossref) ?:


This paper focuses on the psychological realism requirement which should be met by any ethical theory. Even if one should not make normative conclusions out of descriptive presumptions, there are still some limitations resulting from our nature about which one should remember when formulating moral ideals. One should not impose moral ideals which may require of people more than they would ever be able to bear. The paper’s aim is to emphasize how important it is to ethics to pay attention to the empirical research carried out within psychology which show that a large part of our thought and volitional processes is automatic or semi-automatic. This means that ethicists cannot exclusively concentrate on regulating reflective processes which underlie consciously made decisions. If ethics is to avoid marginalization, ethicists must also focus on those automatic processes which control human thinking and action, especially in the circumstances of a total “ego-depletion”, e.g. when we are tired, hungry, or under a strong influence of unstable emotions. The paper shows that virtue ethics is this kind of ethical approach which meets the psychological realism condition most successfully.
Pobierz plik

Plik artykułu


1.Audi, R. (2007). Intuitionism, Pluralism, and the Foundations of Ethics. W: R. Shafer-Landau (red.), Foundations of Ethics. An Anthology (s. 402–419). Malden: Balckwell.
2.Audi, R. (2004). The Good in the Right: a Theory of Intuition and Intrinsic Value.
3.Woodstock: Princeton University Press.
4.Bargh, J.A. (1989). Conditional Automaticity: Varieties of Automatic Influence in
5.Social Perception and Cognition. W: J.S. Uleman, J. Bargh (red.), Unintended
6.Thought (s. 3–51). New York: Guilford.
7.Bargh, J.A., Chen, M., Burrows, L. (1996). Automaticity of Social Behavior: Direct
8.Effects of Trait Construct and Stereotype Activation on Action. Journal
9.of Personality and Social Psychology, 2 (71), 230–244.
10.Baumeister, R.F., Tierney, J. (2013). Siła woli. Odkryjmy na nowo to, co w człowieku
11.najpotężniejsze. Tłum. P. Budkiewicz. Poznań: Media Rodzina.
12.Cohen, M. (2003). 101 Ethical Dilemmas. London: Routledge.
13.Dancy, J. (1998). Etyka obowiązków prima facie. W: P. Singer (red.), Przewodnik
14.po etyce (s. 261–271). Tłum. P. Łuków. Warszawa: Książka i Wiedza.
15.Davis, N.A. (1998). Deontologia współczesna. W: P. Singer (red.), Przewodnik po
16.etyce (s. 247–260). Tłum. P. Łuków. Warszawa: Książka i Wiedza.
17.Doris, J.M. (2002). Lack of Character: Personality and Moral Behavior. Cambridge:
18.Cambridge University Press.
19.Flanagan, O. (1993). Varieties of Moral Personalities. Ethics and Psychological
20.Realism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
21.Hume, D. (1963). Badania dotyczące natury ludzkiej. Tłum. C. Znamierowski. T. 2:
22.O uczuciach. Warszawa: PWN.
23.Humphreys, J. (2005). The Story of Virtue. Universal Lessons on How to Live.
24.Dublin: The Liffey Press.
25.Isen, A.M., Levin, P.F. (1972). Effect of Feeling Good on Helping: Cookies and
26.Kindness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21, 384–388.
27.Kahneman, D. (2012). Pułapki myślenia. O myśleniu szybkim i wolnym. Tłum.
28.P. Szymczyk. Poznań: Media Rodzina.
29.Kilpatrick, W. (1992a). Moral Character: Story-Telling and Virtues. W: R. Knowles,
30.G.F. McLean (red.), Psychological Foundation for Moral Education
31.and Character Development: an Integrated Theory of Moral Development,
32.The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy (s. 169–182). Washington.
33.Kilpatrick, W. (1992b). Why Johnny Can’t Tell Right from Wrong: and What Can
34.We Do About It. New York: Simon Schuster.
35.Kinnier, R.T. (1995). A Reconceptualization of Values Clarification: Values Conflict
36.Resolution. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74, 18–24.
37.MacIntyre, A. (1996). Dziedzictwo cnoty. Tłum. A. Chmielewski. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo
38.Naukowe PWN.
39.Merritt M.W., Doris, J.M., Harman, G. (2010). Character. W: J.M. Dorris and The
40.Moral Psychology Research Group (red.), The Moral Psychology Handbook
41.(s. 356–392). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
42.Nagel, Th. (1997). Traf w życiu moralnym. W: Th. Nagel, Pytania ostateczne
43.(s. 36–53). Tłum. A. Romaniuk. Warszawa: Aletheia.
44.Narvaez, D., Lapsey, D.K. (2005). The Psychological Foundations of Everyday
45.Morality and Moral Expertise. W: D.K. Lapsley, C. Power (red.), Character
46.Psychology and Character Education (s. 140–164). Notre Dame (IN): University
47.of Notre Dame Press.
48.Pritchard, I. (1988). Character Education: Research Prospects and Problems. American
49.Journal of Education, 4 (96), 465–495.
50.Saja, K. (2015). Etyka normatywna. Między konsekwencjalizmem a deontologią.
51.Kraków: Universitas.
52.Szutta, N. (2017). Czy istnieje coś, co zwiemy moralnym charakterem i cnotą?
53.Lublin: Academicon.
54.Szutta, N. (2015a). Edukacja moralna z perspektywy etyki cnót. Diametros, 46,
56.Szutta, N. (2010). Jedność cnót jako warunek normatywności cnoty. W obronie
57.doktryny jedności cnót. Ethos, 23, 78–93.
58.Szutta, N. (2015b). Wprowadzenie, czyli o co chodzi w dyskusji nad moralnym
59.charakterem. W: N. Szutta, A. Szutta, W poszukiwaniu moralnego charakteru
60.(s. 9–30). Lublin: Academicon.
61.Szutta, N. (2007). Współczesna etyka cnót. Projekt nowej etyki? Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo
62.Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego.
63.Williams, B. (1999). Traf moralny. W: B. Williams, Ile wolności powinna mieć wola
64.(s. 215–234). Tłum. T. Baszniak, T. Duliński, M. Szczubiałka. Warszawa:
66.Wolf, S. (1982). Moral Saints. The Journal of Philosophy, 8 (79), 419–439.