Acta Biologica

Wcześniej: Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego. Acta Biologica

ISSN: 2450-8330     eISSN: 2353-3013     DOI: 10.18276/ab.2016.23-08
CC BY-SA   Open Access   DOAJ

Lista wydań / No. 23
A tale of conquest and crisis: invasion history and status of the American mink (Neovison vison) in Iceland
(Historia podboju i kryzysu: inwazja oraz obecny status norki amerykańskiej (Neovison vison) na Islandii)

Autorzy: Robert A. Stefansson
West Iceland Nature Research Centre, Hafnargotu 3, 340 Stykkisholmur, Iceland

Menja von Schmalensee
Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Iceland, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland

Jakub Skorupski
Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Institute for Research on Biodiversity, Faculty of Biology, University of Szczecin, Wąska 13, 71-415 Szczecin, Poland
Słowa kluczowe: zarządzanie populacją rozprzestrzenienie Mustela vison hodowla zwierząt futerkowych gatunek inwazyjny zmiany klimatu
Rok wydania:2016
Liczba stron:14 (87-100)
Cited-by (Crossref) ?:

Abstrakt

Obce gatunki inwazyjne uznane zostały za jedną z głównych przyczyn spadku bioróżnorodności w skali globu, gdyż są one destrukcyjne nie tylko dla ekosystemów rodzimych, ale również dla gospodarki i dobrobytu społeczeństwa. Pomimo ich negatywnego i wielkoskalowego oddziaływania, w wielu przypadkach śledzenie przyczyn inwazji biologicznych oraz dynamiki rozprzestrzenienia obcych gatunków inwazyjnych, jak również ocena charakteru i zakresu ich interakcji z gatunkami i ekosystemami rodzimymi, jest trudne. Ciekawym przypadkiem jest naturalizacja norki amerykańskiej na Islandii, w następstwie której prowadzono szeroko zakrojoną akcję eradykcji ze szczegółowym rejestrem liczby zwierząt zabitych w danym roku i na danym obszarze, dokumentującym historyczne rozmieszczenie gatunku na wyspie. Dodatkowo, struktura ekosystemu Islandii ma charakter uproszczony, w porównaniu z innymi obszarami zajętymi przez ten inwazyjny gatunek. Norka amerykańska została sprowadzona na Islandię w celach hodowlanych (pozyskiwanie futer), we wczesnych latach 30. ubiegłego wieku. W kolejnych dziesięcioleciach dochodziło do ucieczek i reprodukcji w środowisku naturalnym wyspy. System dopłat dla myśliwych odławiających norki, wprowadzony już w kilka lat po introdukcji, nie powstrzymał wzrostu liczebności, ani nie zmniejszył zasięgu gatunku. Statystyki łowieckie zdają się odzwierciedlać rzeczywiste zmiany w wielkości populacji oraz wskazywać, że jej zagęszczenie wzrastało jeszcze w ciągu trzech dekad od momentu skolonizowania przez norkę amerykańską wszystkich zdatnych siedlisk. Po roku 2003 nastąpił gwałtowny, ponad 60% spadek liczebności populacji gatunku, przynajmniej częściowo spowodowany zmianami klimatu, wpływającymi na morskie sieci troficzne. Norka amerykańska ma zapewne negatywny wpływ na populację niektórych ptaków i słodkowodnych ryb na Islandii. Przypadek inwazji norki amerykańskiej na Islandii dostarcza cennej wiedzy w zakresie inwazji biologicznych oraz planowania programów kontroli lub eradykacji tego gatunku.
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